Vault Holdings Data
London Precious Metals Vault Holdings
The data outlined in the tables below represents the volume of Loco London gold and silver held in the London vaults offering custodian services.
As at end December 2018, there were 7,491 tonnes of gold, valued at $308.6 billion and 35,386 tonnes of silver valued (as at end December 2018) at $17.6 billion. This equates to approximately 599,312 gold bars and 1,179,527 silver bars. The data is published on the first day of each month (in the event that the first day of the month is a UK Bank Holiday or falls on a weekend, the data is published on the first business day of the month) three months in arrears.
There are currently seven custodians offering vaulting services (all of which are LBMA members). Four are security carriers, Brinks, G4S Cash Solutions (UK), Malca-Amit and Loomis International Ltd and three are clearing banks, HSBC, ICBC Standard Bank and JP Morgan. In addition, the Bank of England (not an LBMA member) offers gold (but not silver) custodial services to central banks and certain commercial firms that faciliate central bank access to the liquidity of the London gold market. Those clearing members without their own vault operations - Scotiabank and UBS - utilise their accounts with one of the LBMA custodians or the Bank of England (BoE) and therefore do not contribute to the statistics to avoid double accounting.
The physical holdings of precious metals held in the London vaults underpin the gross daily trading and net clearing in London. The net clearing is undertaken by the members of the London Precious Metals Clearing Limited (LPMCL). London is the largest gold trading centre in the world as demonstrated by the $19.6 bn of gold which was cleared on a net basis each day in January, 2019 (Source: LBMA net daily clearing statistics).
According to the Fair & Effective Markets Review (see here for further details) "in markets where OTC trading remains the preferred model, authorities and market participants should continue to explore the scope for improving transparency, in ways that also enhance effectiveness."
Publication of physical holdings represents the first step in reporting for the London Precious Metals Market. The next step is Trade Reporting. The collection of trade data will add transparency to the market and provide gross turnover for the Loco London market. Previously gross turnover had been calculated from one-off surveys or estimated from the clearing statistics.
The Bank of England
The BoE started publishing its monthly gold holding figures in January 2017 (see here for further details). It stores allocated gold on behalf of its customers (custodian service) which include the UK Government, other central banks and commercial banks. BoE data are included in the LBMA statistics displayed in the table below.
|Month||Troy Ounces ('000s)||Troy Ounces ('000s)|
- The data is reported monthly (three months in arrears).
- The data represents the holdings on the last day of the month.
- The LBMA dataset starts from July 2016, which coincides with the current set of custodians being established.
- Loco simply relates to the place or location at which a commodity is physically held, e.g. Loco London gold. Precious metals held within the environs of the M25 are considered to be loco London.
- All physical forms of metal are included: large wholesale bars, coin, kilo bars and small bars.
- The data only includes physical metal held within the London environs and does not include precious metals physical holdings readily available at short notice in other secure overseas vaulting facilities.
- Jewellery and other private holdings held by retailers, individuals and smaller vaults not included in the London Clearing system are not included in the numbers.
- Conversion factor: 1 gram = 0.0321507465 troy ounces.
- Valuations of holdings are based on the pm LBMA gold and silver prices at month end.
- The calculation for number of bars assumes that a standard gold bar weighs 12.5kg and a standard silver bar 30kg.