What is the guiding principle behind the London Gold and Silver Fixings?
The Fixings are an open process at which market participants can transact business on the basis of a single quoted price. Orders can be changed throughout the proceedings as the price is moved higher and lower until such time as buyers' and sellers' orders are satisfied and the price is said to be 'fixed'. Orders executed at the fixings are conducted as principal-to-principal transactions between the client and the dealer through whom the order is placed.
How are the fixings used in the market?
The fixings are the internationally published benchmarks for precious metals. They are fully transparent and are therefore used to deal in large amounts, or to achieve the accepted average price of the metal. As a benchmark, many other financial instruments are priced off the fixing, including cash-settled swaps and options. The silver fixing started in 1897 and the gold fixing in 1919.
Which banks are the members of the London Gold Fixing?
The Gold Fixing is conducted twice a day by telephone, at approximately 10:30 am and 3:00 pm. There are five Gold Fixing members - all of whom are Market Making members of the LBMA. They are the Bank of Nova Scotia–ScotiaMocatta, Barclays Bank Plc, Deutsche Bank AG, HSBC Bank USA, NA and Société Générale. The chairmanship of the Gold Fixing rotates annually amongst its members.
Which banks are the members of the London Silver Fixing?
Three Market Making members of the LBMA conduct the Silver Fixing meeting under the chairmanship of The Bank of Nova Scotia–ScotiaMocatta by telephone at 12.00 noon each working day. The other two members of the Silver Fixing are Deutsche Bank AG and HSBC Bank USA, NA.
What is the procedure for arriving at the Fixing price?
The Gold fixing. Five LBMA members (Barclays Capital, Bank of Nova Scotia-Scotia Mocatta, Deutsche Bank AG London, HSBC and Societe Generale) conduct the Gold Fixing by telephone twice each London business day at 10:30 am and 3:00pm. Orders are placed by clients in dealing rooms of members of the Fixing who net all orders before communicating that net interest to their representative at the Fixing. The gold price is then adjusted up and down until demand and supply is matched at which point the price is declared "Fixed" and all business is conducted on the basis of that Fixing Price. Transparency at the Fixing is served by the fact that counterparties may be kept advised of price changes, together with the level of interest, while the Fixing is in progress and may cancel, increase or decrease their interest dependent on this information. For more information on the Gold fixings please refer to the website of the London Gold Fixing Company at http://www.goldfixing.com/
The Silver fixing. Three LBMA members (Bank of Nova Scotia-Scotia Mocatta, Deutsche Bank and HSBC) conduct the Silver Fixing meeting by telephone at 12 noon each London business working day. The process then follows a similar pattern to gold, arriving at a Fixing Price when buying and selling orders are matched. For more information on the Silver fixings please refer to the website of the London Silver Fixing Company at http://www.silverfixing.com/
GOFO (Gold Forward Offered Rates)
What is GOFO?
GOFO stands for Gold Forward Offered Rate. These are rates at which contributors are prepared to lend gold on a swap against US dollars. Quotes are made for 1-, 2-, 3-, 6- and 12-month periods.
Who provides the rates?
The contributors are eight Forward Market Making Members of the LBMA: The Bank of Nova Scotia–ScotiaMocatta, Barclays Bank Plc, Deutsche Bank AG, HSBC Bank USA London Branch, Goldman Sachs, JP Morgan Chase Bank, Société Générale and UBS AG.
When are the rates quoted?
The means are set at 11 am London time. These are the rates shown on the LBMA website. To show derived gold lease rates, the GOFO means are subtracted from the corresponding values of the LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rates) US dollar means. These rates are also available on the LBMA website.
How are the GOFO means established?
At 10.30 am London time, contributors enter their rates for all time periods. Rates must be input by 10:45am and are dealable between Market Makers up until 11:00am. The process is transparent and the rates act as a benchmark price. A minimum of six contributors must enter rates in order for a Mean to be calculated. At 11.00 am, the mean is established for each maturity by discarding the highest and lowest quotations in each period and averaging the remaining rates.
What are some uses for GOFO means in the market?
They provide a basis for some finance and loan agreements as well as for the settlement of gold Interest Rate Swaps.